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segunda-feira, 27 de setembro de 2010

São Cosme e Damião :: Saints Cosmas and Damian



Hoje, 27 de setembro é dia dos Santos Cosme e Damião. Saints Cosmas and Damian (Greek: Κοσμάς και Δαμιανός) (also written Kosmas and Damianos) (died ca. 287) were twins and early Christian martyrs born in Arabia who practised the art of healing in the seaport of Aegea (modern Ayas) in the Gulf of Issus, then in the Roman province of Syria. They accepted no payment for their services, which led them to be nicknamed anargyroi (The Silverless); it is said that by this, they led many to the Christian faith.

São Cosme e São Damião, os santos gêmeos, morreram em cerca de 300 d.C. Sua festa é celebrada em 27 de setembro. Somente a igreja Católica comemora no dia 26 de setembro pois, segundo o calendário católico, o dia 27 de setembro é o dia de São Vicente de Paulo. Há relatos que atestam serem originários da Arábia, de uma família nobre de pais cristãos, no século III. Seus nomes verdadeiros eram Acta e Passio.

Estudaram medicina na Síria e depois foram praticá-la em Egéia. Diziam "Nós curamos as doenças em nome de Jesus Cristo e pelo seu poder". Exerciam a medicina na Síria, em Egéia e na Ásia Menor, sem receber qualquer pagamento. Por isso, eram chamados de anargiros, ou seja, inimigos do dinheiro.

Cosme e Damião foram martirizados na Síria, porém é desconhecida a forma exata como morreram. Perseguidos por Diocleciano, foram trucidados e muitos fiéis transportaram seus corpos para Roma. Foram sepultados no maior templo dedicado a eles, feito pelo Papa Félix IV (526-30), na Basílica no Fórum de Roma com as iniciais SS - Cosme e Damião.



Icon of Sts. Kosmas and Damian
with scenes from their lives
During the persecution under Diocletian, Cosmas and Damian were arrested by order of the Prefect of Cilicia, one Lysias who is otherwise unknown, who ordered them under torture to recant. 

However, according to legend they stayed true to their faith, enduring being hung on a cross, stoned and shot by arrows and finally suffered execution by beheading. 

Anthimus, Leontius and Euprepius, their younger brothers, who were inseparable from them throughout life, shared in their martyrdom.

Their most famous miraculous exploit was the grafting of a leg from a recently deceased Ethiopian to replace a patient's ulcered leg, and was the subject of many paintings and illuminations.


Oração

Amados São Cosme e São Damião,
Em nome do Todo-Poderoso
Eu busco em vós a bênção e o amor.

Icon of Saints Cosmas (left) and Damian (right)
holding medicine boxes 
and spoons for dispensing cures
Com a capacidade de renovar e regenerar,
Com o poder de aniquilar qualquer efeito negativo
De causas decorrentes
Do passado e presente,
Imploro pela perfeita reparação
Do meu corpo e
Dos meus filhos
(...............................................)
nome dos filhos
E de minha família.

Agora e sempre,
Desejando que a luz dos santos gêmeos
Esteja em meu coração!
Vitalize meu lar,
A cada dia,
Trazendo-me paz, saúde e tranqüilidade.

Amados São Cosme e Damião,
Eu prometo que,
Alcançando a graça,
Não os esquecerei jamais!
Assim seja,
Salve São Cosme e Damião,
Amém!

Ao alcançar a graça, fazer um bolo ou oferecer uma festa às crianças de rua, orfanatos ou creches.

Prayer

Oh glorious martyrs of Christ,
Saints Cosmas and Damian,
you gave your lives for the love of God,
benefiting your fellow man,
and crowning your martyrdom with an open and loyal profession of your faith.
A decapitação de São Cosme e S Damião, por Fra Angelico
You taught us to love God above all things,
and to love our fellow man as ourselves,
professing always,
and without fear,
the religion of Jesus.

Augmenting amongst the faithful populace many miracles,
you are glorious indeed.
Through your intercession,
which brings about deliverance of these miracles,
we pray to you for your aid in all things.
May your patronage never be far from us in the illness of our body and soul.

Oh great protectors,
Saints Cosmas & Damian,
assist us with your love and free us from all evils.

Amen.

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From Wikipédia...

Ibeji is a term in the Yoruba language meaning "twins."

Overview

The Yoruba are a major African ethnic group; in their culture twins are traditionally very important beings. In the Yoruba language "ibeji" literally means "twins". Carved wooden figures made to house the soul of a dead twin are also called ibeji. These wooden figures, six to ten inches high and carved with the family mask, are often well tended. The Yoruba people believe that this care and tending helps ensure the survival of the other twin. In the Yoruba traditional religion, there is a deity that represents twins called Orisha Ibeji or Orisa Ibeji.

Origins

While the birth rate of monozygotic twins is relatively constant worldwide, about 4 per 1000 births, that rate for dizygotic twins varies widely. The incidence of dizygotic twin births in much of Africa is significantly greater than in the United States, with the highest incidence among the Yoruba peoples of Nigeria, with a frequency of 45 per 1000 births. In fact, the Yoruba town of Igboora boasts of an average of 150 twins for 1000 births and is therefore considered Nigeria's, and the world's, capital of twins.

Practice

Traditionally, when twins were born, the parents would visit a Babalawo, meaning, "father of mysteries", to find out their wishes. The first of the twins to be born is traditionally named Taiyewo or Tayewo, (which means 'the first to taste the world'); this is often shortened to Taiwo, Taiye, or Taye. Kehinde, "the last to come", is the name of the last-born twin. These are what could be called "celestial" Yoruba names; names due to birth circumstances. The child after the twins is called "Idowu" regardless of the sex, a boy or a girl. "Alaba" is the one after Idowu, either a boy or a girl, which is usually followed by Oni and Ola or "Idogbe", etc.

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